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Autores: Juan Baselga, María González
Programa de la asignatura: Temas que forman parte de la asignatura.

Topic 0: Preliminary concepts
- Units
- Standard conditions for T and P
- Standard state
- Mass and charge of elemental particles. Atomic mass
- Ions, molecules, mol, Avogadro’s number
- Mass spectrometry
- Molecular formula, empirical formula
- Notation in chemical equations. Mass and charge balance
- Types of chemical reactions
- Gases

Topic 1: Atoms
- Ancient ideas about atoms
- Experiments and concepts that led to Bohr’s model
- Bohr’s model of hydrogen atom
- Foundations of Quantum Mechanics
- Schrödinger equation for hydrogen atom
- Quantum numbers and atomic orbitals
- Probability density
- Multielectronic atoms
- Shortcomings of the Aufbau Principle
- Periodic Table
- Periodicity of chemical properties

Topic 2: Molecules
- Classification of chemical bonds
- Covalent bond. Lewis structures
- Molecular geometry. VSEPR theory
- Theory of Molecular Orbitals
- Energy diagrams. Bond order
- Coordination compounds
- Hybridization: simple, double and triple bonds
- Bond distance and bond energy
- Ionic character of covalent bonds. Dipole moments
- Intermolecular forces. Classification
- Coulombic interactions
- Polarization interactions
- Hydrogen bonding. Structure of water
- Repulsive potential.

Topic 3: States of Matter
- Classification
- Types of solids
- Gases.
- Liquids.
o Brownian motion
o Clausius –Clapeyron equation
o Equilibrium phase diagrams
- Solutions.
o Solubility. Temperature dependence. Hydration
o Units for concentration
o Colligative properties: freezing point depression, boiling point elevation, osmosis,
dialysis


Topic 4: Elementary thermodynamics
- Definitions: systems, variables, state functions
- Heat and Work
- First law of thermodynamics
- Internal energy and enthalpy
- Standard molar enthalpy of reaction
- Thermo-chemistry and Hess law
- Heat capacity: constant pressure and constant volume
- Temperature dependence of enthalpy
- Second law of thermodynamics. Entropy
- Reversible and irreversible processes
- Temperature dependence of entropy
- Reaction entropy
- Third law of thermodynamics
- Absolute entropy
- Gibbs free energy
- Spontaneity in chemical reactions
- Standard Gibbs energy of formation
- Gibbs free energy and equilibrium constant in reactions between gases
- Temperature dependence of reaction constant

Topic 5: Equilibrium Reactions
- Kp and Kc in homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibriums
- Le Chatelier’s principle
- Factors affecting chemical equilibrium: concentration, pressure, volume, inert gases,
temperature.
- Arrhenius theory of acids and bases.
- Brönsted theory of acids and bases
- Lewis theory of acids and bases
- Conjugated acid-base pairs
- Water self ionization. pH
- Strength of acids and bases
- Polyprotic acids.
- Hydrolysis
- Buffers.
- Acid-base titrations
- Acid-base indicators
- Solubility. Solubility product
- Bio-connections: antacids and buffering in human blood
- Oxidation and reduction reactions
- Oxidation state in inorganic and organic substances
- Balancing redox reactions in acid and basic media
- Galvanic cells. Half reaction
- Conventions about cells
- Standard hydrogen electrode
- Cell potential
- Electrode potential and Gibbs free energy. Nernst equation
- Electrolytic cells. Faraday’s laws

Topic 6: Chemical kinetics
- Definition of reaction rate
- Reaction rate law: rate constant and reaction order
- Integrated kinetic equations
- Reaction mechanisms: elemental process, molecularity, limiting step, reaction intermediate
- Rate constants and equilibrium constants in reversible processes
- Kinetic theories: Collision theory, Arrhenius law and activation energy. Transition state theory,
activation entropy and activation enthalpy.
- Catalysis. Homogeneous and heterogeneous. Steps of heterogeneous catalysis.
- Enzymatic catalysis: Michaelis-Menten kinetics

Topic 7: Introduction to Organic Chemistry
- Carbon, carbon compounds and hybridization
- Naming, functional group and general rules
- Empirical, structural and molecular formulae
- Isomerism.
- Conformational isomerism: Newman projections. Cyclohexane ring
- Stereoisomerism. Convention rules for naming R/S isomers
- Optical activity. Specific rotation. D/L convention system
- Fisher projections. Diasteromers
- Intermolecular forces and physical properties in organic compounds
- Electronic shifts in s bonds: Inductive effect
- Electronic shifts in p systems: Resonance
- Aromaticity
- Substitution effects in p systems.
- Homolytic and heterolytic breakdown of organic bonds
- Nucleophilic and electrophilic reactives
- Reaction intermediates: radicals. Geometry
- Reaction intermediates: carbocations. Geometry
- Reaction intermediates: carbanions
- Classification of organic reactions: Chain reactions. Electrophilic substitution. Nucleophilic
substitution. Electrophilic and nucleophilic addition. Elimination. Condensation

Topic 8: Reactions in Organic Chemistry
- Alkanes. Cycloalkanes
- Alkenes. Cycloalkenes. Alkynes
- Benzene and aromatic hydrocarbons.
- Alcohols and phenols. Physical properties
- Acid-base properties of alcohols and phenols
- Naturally occurring alcohols and phenols.
- Reactivity of alcohols: dehydration and oxidation.
- Ethers. Physical properties. Cyclic ethers
- Biologically relevant ethers
- Thiols: acid-base reactions
- Amines.
- Carbonylic compounds. Physical properties and resonance
- Reactivity: oxidation and reduction reactions, nucleophilic addition (acetals).
- Acidity of a-hydrogen. Keto-enol tautomerism
- Natural aldehydes and ketones
- Carboxylic acids.
- Derivatives from carboxylic acids: anhydrides, esters, amides

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