Syllabus

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Topic 0: Preliminary concepts

  • Units
  • Standard conditions for T and P
  • Standard state
  • Mass and charge of elemental particles. Atomic mass
  • Ions, molecules, mol, Avogadro’s number
  • Mass spectrometry
  • Molecular formula, empirical formula
  • Notation in chemical equations. Mass and charge balance
  • Types of chemical reactions
  • Gases


Topic 1: Atoms

  • Ancient ideas about atoms
  • Experiments and concepts that led to Bohr’s model
  • Bohr’s model of hydrogen atom
  • Foundations of Quantum Mechanics
  • Schrödinger equation for hydrogen atom
  • Quantum numbers and atomic orbitals
  • Probability density
  • Multielectronic atoms
  • Shortcomings of the Aufbau Principle
  • Periodic Table
  • Periodicity of chemical properties


  • Topic 2: Molecules
  • Classification of chemical bonds
  • Covalent bond. Lewis structures
  • Molecular geometry. VSEPR theory
  • Theory of Molecular Orbitals
  • Energy diagrams. Bond order
  • Coordination compounds
  • Hybridization: simple, double and triple bonds
  • Bond distance and bond energy
  • Ionic character of covalent bonds. Dipole moments
  • Intermolecular forces. Classification
  • Coulombic interactions
  • Polarization interactions
  • Hydrogen bonding. Structure of water
  • Repulsive potential.


Topic 3: States of Matter

  • Classification
  • Types of solids
  • Gases.
  • Liquids.
  •  Brownian motion
    •  Clausius –Clapeyron equation
    •  Equilibrium phase diagrams
  • Solutions.
    •   Solubility. Temperature dependence. Hydration
    •   Units for concentration
    •   Colligative properties: freezing point depression, boiling point elevation, osmosis, dialysis



Topic 4: Elementary thermodynamics

  • Definitions: systems, variables, state functions
  • Heat and Work
  • First law of thermodynamics
  • Internal energy and enthalpy
  • Standard molar enthalpy of reaction
  • Thermo-chemistry and Hess law
  • Heat capacity: constant pressure and constant volume
  • Temperature dependence of enthalpy
  • Second law of thermodynamics. Entropy
  • Reversible and irreversible processes
  • Temperature dependence of entropy
  • Reaction entropy
  • Third law of thermodynamics
  • Absolute entropy
  • Gibbs free energy
  • Spontaneity in chemical reactions
  • Standard Gibbs energy of formation
  • Gibbs free energy and equilibrium constant in reactions between gases
  • Temperature dependence of reaction constant


Topic 5: Equilibrium Reactions

  • Kp and Kc in homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibriums
  • Le Chatelier’s principle
  • Factors affecting chemical equilibrium: concentration, pressure, volume, inert gases,
  • temperature.
  • Arrhenius theory of acids and bases.
  • Brönsted theory of acids and bases
  • Lewis theory of acids and bases
  • Conjugated acid-base pairs
  • Water self ionization. pH
  • Strength of acids and bases
  • Polyprotic acids.
  • Hydrolysis
  • Buffers.
  • Acid-base titrations
  • Acid-base indicators
  • Solubility. Solubility product
  • Bio-connections: antacids and buffering in human blood
  • Oxidation and reduction reactions
  • Oxidation state in inorganic and organic substances
  • Balancing redox reactions in acid and basic media
  • Galvanic cells. Half reaction
  • Conventions about cells
  • Standard hydrogen electrode
  • Cell potential
  • Electrode potential and Gibbs free energy. Nernst equation
  • Electrolytic cells. Faraday’s laws


Topic 6: Chemical kinetics

  • Definition of reaction rate
  • Reaction rate law: rate constant and reaction order
  • Integrated kinetic equations
  • Reaction mechanisms: elemental process, molecularity, limiting step, reaction intermediate
  • Rate constants and equilibrium constants in reversible processes
  • Kinetic theories: Collision theory, Arrhenius law and activation energy. Transition state theory,
  • activation entropy and activation enthalpy.
  • Catalysis. Homogeneous and heterogeneous. Steps of heterogeneous catalysis.
  • Enzymatic catalysis: Michaelis-Menten kinetics


Topic 7: Introduction to Organic Chemistry

  • Carbon, carbon compounds and hybridization
  • Naming, functional group and general rules
  • Empirical, structural and molecular formulae
  • Isomerism.
  • Conformational isomerism: Newman projections. Cyclohexane ring
  • Stereoisomerism. Convention rules for naming R/S isomers
  • Optical activity. Specific rotation. D/L convention system
  • Fisher projections. Diasteromers
  • Intermolecular forces and physical properties in organic compounds
  • Electronic shifts in s bonds: Inductive effect
  • Electronic shifts in p systems: Resonance
  • Aromaticity
  • Substitution effects in p systems.
  • Homolytic and heterolytic breakdown of organic bonds
  • Nucleophilic and electrophilic reactives
  • Reaction intermediates: radicals. Geometry
  • Reaction intermediates: carbocations. Geometry
  • Reaction intermediates: carbanions
  • Classification of organic reactions: Chain reactions. Electrophilic substitution. Nucleophilic
  • substitution. Electrophilic and nucleophilic addition. Elimination. Condensation


Topic 8: Reactions in Organic Chemistry

  • Alkanes. Cycloalkanes
  • Alkenes. Cycloalkenes. Alkynes
  • Benzene and aromatic hydrocarbons.
  • Alcohols and phenols. Physical properties
  • Acid-base properties of alcohols and phenols
  • Naturally occurring alcohols and phenols.
  • Reactivity of alcohols: dehydration and oxidation.
  • Ethers. Physical properties. Cyclic ethers
  • Biologically relevant ethers
  • Thiols: acid-base reactions
  • Amines.
  • Carbonylic compounds. Physical properties and resonance
  • Reactivity: oxidation and reduction reactions, nucleophilic addition (acetals).
  • Acidity of a-hydrogen. Keto-enol tautomerism
  • Natural aldehydes and ketones
  • Carboxylic acids.
  • Derivatives from carboxylic acids: anhydrides, esters, amides 

Last modified: Friday, 11 March 2022, 1:40 PM